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Document Analysis

Document Analysis

  • Please click on the link below and print out the worksheet "Show me the Money!"
    Show me the Money Worksheet!
  • Please read the documents below and write down any mention of how much money was being requested & used and what are they doing to earn this money? The "Show me the Money Worksheet!" worksheet may be used.
  • Feel free to fill in any other additional information on your chart that you may feel is important.
  • Ask students to consider the following:
    1. What do the soldiers' requests for money imply about how much and how often they are getting paid?
    2. What do the soldiers say about payment?
    3. Are soldiers extremely concerned about money?
    4. If so, what can you conclude?
    5. How do the letters compare to the information found in American Soldiers Pay in the Civil War at
  • What does research say about how much these soldiers are getting paid?

Use as a resource for either students or teachers to use for factual information.

Manuscript Group 670
Serven-Winters Family
(Paterson, New Jersey)

My dear mother I now take my pen in hand to inform you that I am well and presently hoping these few lines will find you the same. I say that I am well but I have got a very sore finger but otherwise I am well it is only a fester but it is very painful. You want to know if I want to draw my money no I don't want it drawed but I am out of tobacco and other little necessary articles and its uncertain when we will draw our monthly pay perhaps not until our time expires and I often feel hungry and have not got a cent to purchase anything with apples are 3 to 5 cents a piece tobacco 5 cents a paper that I used to buy for 3 cents in Paterson you say you will send me a broiled chicken don't do that mother it will be 3 or 4 days and perhaps more before it reaches me and then it will be spoiled butter is 35 cents a pound and I am very fond of it and I should like to have you send me down a pound or two. Some good apples and cake and chestnuts if you have got them. I want sour apples I would like to have quite some cake and a pie if it is not to much trouble for you to get it for me and send me down a few more postage stamps I was delighted with those you sent me I bought some tobacco with some of them. I hope you are well at ease in your mind dear mother the only thing that troubles me is that I have horrible dreams in the night about you I sometimes dream that I am cutting your throat and at other times I dream you are crying and then I wake up in unutterable agony and feel most dreadful for a few minutes until I can fully realize that it was but a dream over two months of the time has already expired and spring will soon return again and then I will return to see my dear kind mother again to leave her no ore until I die perhaps it will be settled before spring and then I will return home tell father...(letter ends)


Philadelphia Friday 23rd

Dear Father and Mother,

I just received your kind and welcome letter informing me that you had sent me 3 or 4 letters one containing three dollars none of which I have received...I have been begging and praying for a little money...I was out of patience and thought you had forgotten me altogether because you did not must draw me five dollars from Newark I want you to write me and give me the full particulars as soon as you receive this when you wrote the letter with the three dollars in it how long ago and when you sent it and if you have a dollar or two to spare send it maybe it will reach me. I want it very bad. I have not got a cent and no way to get it. I could not even write to you but the ladies in the Hospitle gives us a sheet of paper and an envelope once a week and sometimes I am not present when they come around with it and then I spoke of Anthonys funeral I thought he was buried long ago, he died about twenty feet from where I laid and he was dead before I knew it. I want to know about Oliver's foot and how he came to cut it...

Please write soon.

Chantilly Fields VA
June 21st 1863
Sunday Evening

My Dear Sister,

I find I have again two or three letters from you in my pocket as well as a number from the correspondents. I have been busily engaged all the afternoon trying to get some of the things out of the way, and all the morning I was busily supplying the men with new shoes, the old ones being about used up by the heavy work of the last week...

When we are not in camp we hardly know when Sunday comes and last Sunday I thought it was Saturday until nearly noon.

...heavy marching lately but very little fighting. The wagon trains were kept in motion almost constantly. From Saturday until Tuesday night last I did not close my eyes and sat in the ____ all the time

Weather has been extremely warm the thermometer ranging from 98 degrees to 104 and 106 but yesterday and today cool and pleasant...

I have eaten about half a dozen strawberries this spring so far...

There has been a severe fight today some where away up on our right as we have been listening to the firing nearly all day and now we are quite anxious to know where the field is and the result but no one appears to know...

Hoping that this cruel war may soon be over and looking forward to the time when my country shall not claim my services.

I am still as ever your affectionate brother - Aaron

Falmouth VA May 2nd 186?

My Dear Sister,

We are on the move again. on the 28th April in the midst of a drizzling rainstorm and our Division crossing a river about a mile below Fredericksburg the same night... The firing has been ? today but not much damage to our men...

Last Sunday evening my ? took fire and in putting it on I burned my hand quite badly. My right hand is nearly well but my left will probably be disabled for a month or two. It bothers me considerably especially in riding as I can scarcely hold my horse with one hand. I bought a fine horse a few days ago from "Uncle Sam" for $125 was offered $150 for ...

I will try and write again soon - Aaron

Camp Seminary September 20 1861

My Dear Sister,

Your letter was received day before yesterday.

I should have answered yesterday but was very busy all the morning and out all the afternoon looking after "Lincoln."

Having nothing particularly to do I rode out to our outpost pickets and was about to return when I took a notion to move up a little hill a short distance ahead for the purpose of getting a better view. I was just taking a look around by a ____ pine tree when whiz ---- bang ---- was something over my head causing both horse and rider to jump. The pieces struck just ahead of me causing a good deal of fun for the rebels, as the bomb didn't reach them. Before they stopped laughing however a 20 pounder bomb went singing directly over my head and struck just under their noses. They didn't appear to enjoy that one so much. About a dozen shots and shells passed me all of which struck a little short but scattered the "____" right and left. I found on reaching head quarters that the shots were fired from the Jersey fort in our own camps. General McClellan, McDowell, Franklin, Ledgewisk, _______ and __ all the "big boys" in this part of the country were here and witnessed the sport.

About that salary I suppose the hours is considered pay enough. I received two months pay yesterday $23.66.

I received Maria's letter tonight. Will answer it tomorrow if I have time. Have two others to answer first.

Tell Amie I am ready for that lecture on "meddling"

In a hurry Your affectionate Bro - Aaron

Camp near Bakersville Sunday Sept. 28/62

My Dear Sister,

Owing to our imperfect mail facilities your letter of 17th was not received until late last night when we received the first mail for days. My share was four letters. One from Boonton, one from Brooklyn, one from Newark, and your own.

I am glad to hear you like your school so well and that you don't apprehend being homesick. It is a disease I was never troubled with but rather imagine it is decidedly unpleasant.

From your account you must be very pleasantly located and when I return from the wars I shall expect to find a couple of finished young ladies in place of the little sisters I left. I have heard nothing from Henry but suppose he is with his Regiment near Washington or Alexandria.

We have moved now for three days but expect to go to Hagerstown in a day or two. At present we are within a mile from the Potomac and about two miles above ___ no 4. Our regiment is pretty well reduced having only about three hundred men for duty. We are now in a country very different from Virginia. A section where we can buy bread, fruit, vegetables and if we are so fortunate as to have the money. Nearly all the farmers around here are true "Union" but occasionally we come across one who is inclined to favor "secession." That man is very apt to lose all his apples, potatoes, and not have much money to show for it.

I have happened to be considerably in the rear of the army during all the fighting in Maryland but have been obliged to pass over the field soon after the fight. The fighting has been a general thing very severe and the battle fields presently a fearful sight. Dead and dying men and horses, broken and busted guns, broken wheels and gun carriages all in one ____ mass. In their haste to get out of Maryland the rebels left nearly all their dead ...behind and for several days after we would find men in the woods behind the trees and fences who had dragged themselves their to die.

In our small field when the fighting had been very severe I counted over six hundred dead rebels. Our men were engaged in burying thirty or fifty in one huge grave, a mound and a strip of board with the letters "C.S.A," is all that marks their resting place. I don't care to see any more such sights but I suppose I shall.

I must close, as other letters must be answered. Hear from you soon and I will try and answer all your letters promptly.

Your Aff. Bro, - Aaron

Camp of 2nd Regt. Near Harrison's Landing July 11th 1862

My Dear Sister,

Your 4th of July letter was received on the 8th and I take the first spare moment to answer it. As much of our clothing now lost in the Seven Days Battle the Quarter Masters have all they want to do to put the troops in ____ again.

You have already read an account of our week of fighting. I can give you no description of it. It was a perfect storm of shots and shells, and bullets nearby all the time. Of course I was engaged with our wagon train and consequently was favored with nothing but shell but they dropped pretty thick sometimes, but fortunately no great damage was done to our train although some did not favor so well.

You have already read an account of our week of fighting. I can give you no description of it. It was a perfect storm of shots and shells, and bullets nearby all the time. Of course I was engaged with our wagon train and consequently was favored with nothing but shell but they dropped pretty thick sometimes, but fortunately no great damage was done to our train although some did not favor so well.

We are now resting and recruiting as rapidly as this terribly hot weather will allow.

I saw some fearful sights such as I never wish to see again. Among our men the sight was sometimes terrible, but the way the enemy were cut up was sickening. They were crazy with whiskey in which gunpowder had been dissolved and moved up regiment after regiment only to be cut down by hundreds. I hope that your next letter may bring better news in regard to the health of Aunt Maria's father.

I was grieved but not greatly at the death of uncle Jared as it has been long expected. When you see Aunt Betsy remember me to her.

Here is a call and I must stop.

In Haste Your Aff Bro -Aaron

March 6/64

My Dear Sister,

I had almost given up the idea of writing any more letters as it has seemed impossible to find the time but now our company have all left and there is prospect of peace and quiet for a day at least.

I find three or four letters in my pocket from _______ received since I last wrote to you...On Friday evening just as we were about to retire making calculations on a good time for the next day as a party of friends from Jersey were expected we were surprised by an order to be ready to move at 8 o'clock the next morning with six days rations.

Although the order didn't exactly ____ us we had nothing to do but obeyand at the appointed time were ready. We started about 9 o'clock and taking an easy moved to or nearly to ____ city and halting for the night.

...Started again at 8 o'clock on Sunday morning and after a march of about nine miles from Maddison Court House to which placed our Brigade pushed on expecting some resistance in fording the river...we made the entire distance of 24 miles in daylight. I had every empty wagon filled with lame and tired men. I can assure you we were all glad enough to get back to warm tents and a day bed again and a glass of grog and put us in good humor.

This ended our raid. Not a very interesting account I know but it will serve to give you an idea as to how I have spending my time.

At present the weather is fine as Spring weather can well be, but it may rain before night...

...St Valentine did not notice me at all this year and Leap Year too at that. I feel I am doomed to live a bachelor unless some of the above girls cometo the rescue.

I am pleased to know that Bette takes such a lively interest in my welfare, but don't let her give way to her feelings too much. Above all tell her not to cry, as tears were never made for those eyes of hers. Besides if handkerchiefs are as scarce as they are here crying must be a very inconvenient amusement...

...I enclose a sample of the last picture I had taken. If you find some good looking, sweet young lady not over thirty present it to her and say, "please exchange."

On Tuesday morning it continued to rain and kept it up all day. About noon we heard firing in front again, which proved to be General Custer fighting his way back through a force of rebel cavalry who had got in his rear.

Just before dark he came into town in good order but men and homes nearly worn out and covered with mud...

...I didn't know that postage stamps were so scarce in Opheleton, but I don't want you to go out again. Don't use your money for that purpose, as I'll furnish all you want. I enclose $2 and when that is gone let me know I have more left.

Write Again soon Your aff Bro - Aaron


Discuss results.

Writing prompt:

Is this fair payment for services provided by soldiers? In developing your response, include evidence from other lessons in this unit, specifically the sacrifices made by soldiers and their wartime experiences