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Cornelius Van Vorst, ca.1620; 
Jersey City Free Public Library; Grover Cleveland Political Cartoon; 
Grover Cleveland Birthplace Historical Site Collection Peter Lee, former slave, ca.1880; 
Hoboken Historical Photographs Collection; Farm Map of Hillsboro, Somerset County, 1860; 
Historical Maps of New Jersey Collection; Bathing Beauties, 1890-1930; 
American Labor Museum/Botto House National Landmark Collection; Flag Salute, 1950; 
Seabrook Farms Collection;
Digitizing Multi-Page Documents and Books
Digitizing Requirements
Multi-page documents and books should be digitized to meet the same requirements as single page text objects.

Black and white documents with gray tones, or black and white photos:

  • Should be scanned at a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • Color space should be grayscale. RGB is acceptable, but contributes nothing to pure grayscale images and only increases file size.
  • Archival files should be in TIFF format. LZW compression is acceptable because it is "lossless," and thus does not compromise image quality to reduce file size.

Black and white documents with pure text:

  • Should be scanned at a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • Color space should be 2 bit color (black and white), but should be converted to grayscale if the documents are to be digitally resized.
  • TIFF format for archived images.
What Should You Scan?
In determining which components to scan, ask the following questions:

Spine: If the spine is particularly decorative (e.g., containing illustrations, calligraphy, embossed lettering, etc.) or the book is particularly rare or valuable, you will want to include the spine. Otherwise, it is not necessary to scan the spine.

Cover: Does the cover include at a minimum the title of the work or the author? A cover should generally be scanned.

Cover verso: Does the cover verso include textual information or decorative end papers that add value to the content? If not, omit scanning. Always scan a map or chart illustrating the front or back cover verso.

Back cover: Is the back cover in a decorative binding that adds value and interest to the digital facsimile? If not, omit scanning.

Back cover verso: Does the back cover verso include textual information or decorative end papers that add value to the content? If not, omit scanning. Always scan a map or chart illustrating the front or back cover verso.

Jacket: If the jacket contains any information that is not duplicated by the cover or cover verso, you will probably want to scan the jacket. If you choose to scan the jacket, scan all sides that contain useful information or illustration. Be aware that jacket illustrations are generally separately covered by copyright, so if the book is still in copyright, you will need appropriate permission from the rights holder for the jacket illustration.

Front matter: Front matter includes any pages that precede the primary content or text. It can include decorative front pages that may provide maps or illustrations, the dedication, autograph of the author, half title page, initial illustration, title page, preface or forward and table of contents. Each is discussed in turn:

Decorative front pages: Decorative front pages that add artistic value or content, through maps and illustrations, should generally be scanned. If the decorative front pages are repeated on the decorative end pages, you will generally scan only front or end pages, not both, unless the resource is valuable or rare.

Dedication: A dedication should generally be digitized.

Autograph of the author: An autograph of the author can appear anywhere in the front matter, but commonly appears on the title page or half title page. Any page with the author's autograph should be digitized, even if the page is otherwise blank.

Half title page: Many books include a half title page that includes only the title of the book, sometimes abbreviated to omit the subtitle. Author information may or may not be included. If the information on the half title page is duplicated on the title page, use your judgment about digitizing. Generally, if the resource is considered valuable or rare, you will want to digitize the half title page. Otherwise, you will probably omit scanning. If in doubt, digitize the half title page.

Half title page verso: Generally, this page will be blank and should not be digitized. However, if text appears on the half title page verso, and you have digitized the half title page, then digitize the verso.

Title page: The title page will always be digitized.

Title page verso: The title page verso will usually include copyright, printing and publication information. If any text appears on this page, it should be digitized.

Preface or forward: If the preface or forward is separately numbered from the main text or unnumbered, it is considered front matter. Any useful text such as a preface or forward should be digitized.

Initial illustration: All illustrations should be digitized.

Table of Contents: The table of contents will always be digitized.

Back matter: Back matter includes any index, bibliography/footnotes, afterword or postscript, ending illustration or decorative end pages. Each is discussed in turn.

Index and bibliography: If the index, bibliography/footnotes are separately numbered from the main text or are unnumbered, they are considered back matter. They should always be digitized.

Afterword or Postscript: If the afterword or postscript is separately numbered from the main text or are unnumbered, it should be considered back matter. It should always be digitized.

Ending illustration: All illustrations should be digitized.

Decorative end pages: Decorative end pages that add artistic value or content, through maps and illustrations, should generally be scanned. If the decorative front pages are repeated on the decorative end pages, you will generally scan only front or end pages unless the resource is valuable or rare.

Pages of Plates: Books often include unnumbered or separately numbered pages of plates. These should always be digitized.

Structuring Multi-page Documents and Books for the Web
A multi-page document or book is known as a "complex object" because it is really a concatenation of many individual objects ("pages"), each of which has meaning on its own but depends on concatenation with all the objects, in a structured order, to be completely meaningful to the reader.

Ideas, concepts and descriptions flow forward in consecutive order in a book or document. If pages appear out of order in the concatenated text, the book becomes meaningless to the reader.

Each page in a book or document needs to be scanned as an archival-quality TIFF for long-term preservation of the information contained on each page. However, since each TIFF is a discrete and independent digital file, it is possible for those pages to be stored and reassembled in a way that does not provide the consecutive, forward flow of information. A structure map serves as an "inventory" of the complex object's contents, much as a "table of contents" in the printed book, so that computer programs can reassemble the individual pages in the correct order. Many organizations use "page turner" applications to page through TIFF images (or low-resolution JPEGs of the TIFF images).

NJDH is currently creating a structure map based on consecutive page numbering for all master TIFF images, as part of a METS metadata document for the multi-page resource. Ultimately, this structure map will be expanded to include an indication of the information contained on each page (e.g., illustration, title page, table of contents, etc.)

In the interests of ease of use for display and navigation, NJDH is currently creating PDF and DJVu web display formats for multi-page resources. PDF and DJVu are both widely used digital text web viewing formats that create structured multi-page documents with page turning capabilities.

When digitizing multi-page resources for NJDH, you will only need to digitize each page as a high resolution TIFF according to the digitizing requirements provided above. The NJDH pipeline will create the structure map and the PDF and DJVu web access copies of the document.

File Naming for Multi-page Documents or Books
Before scanning a multi-page document or book, it is important to examine the resource from cover to cover to determine the size and structure of the resource and what components of the resource contain meaningful information. This will help you develop a file naming strategy that you can use to organize the scanning work and keep track of files to insure that you upload a complete file set to NJDH, via the Workflow Management System or some other delivery mechanism (FTP, CD-ROM, etc.)

Naming:

File naming should be simple enough to reflect the consecutive structure of the book.

NJDH recommends naming the document mnemonically or to reflect its location on shelves, to link the analog source document to the digital surrogate:

A simple method is to combine author last name and first meaningful word of title,

   Example:
   Immigration in the 19 th Century / John Mitchell
   mitchellImmigration

Another method is to use the LC or Dewey Classification number or collection locator, to link the analog source and digital surrogate.

   Example:
   F276G31989
   BlumenthalCollectionFld6Item7

Volume numbering
   Add volume numbering using simple abbreviations, e.g.,
   F276G31989Vol1
   F276G31989Guide

Numbering:

NJDH recommends simple consecutive numbering for all files, beginning with the spine (if digitized) and front cover, through the back cover.

Use three leading zeroes before the first number (0001). As you move into two digit numbers, this will become 2 leading zeroes, etc. (0010).

Separate numbering from the textual identifier with an underscore, e.g,:    BlumenthalCollectionFld6Item7_0001

Questions: Contact the NJDH Project Manager.
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