Cornelius Van Vorst, ca.1620; 
Jersey City Free Public Library; Grover Cleveland Political Cartoon; 
Grover Cleveland Birthplace Historical Site Collection Peter Lee, former slave, ca.1880; 
Hoboken Historical Photographs Collection; Farm Map of Hillsboro, Somerset County, 1860; 
Historical Maps of New Jersey Collection; Bathing Beauties, 1890-1930; 
American Labor Museum/Botto House National Landmark Collection; Flag Salute, 1950; 
Seabrook Farms Collection;

Electronic New Jersey - Glossary
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Affiliated
To bring into close association or connection
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Affiliation
A person or organization associated with another.
Affirmative Action
A policy or a program that seeks to redress past discrimination through active measures to ensure equal opportunity, as in education and employment
Alienation
The state of being withdrawn or isolated as through indifference or disaffection
American Cranberry Growers Association
An association of cranberry growers from throughout the United States formed as a trade and information forum for the dissemination of successful cranberry-growing practices and marketing standardization in the industry.
Americanization
The process of making American forces responsible for the conduct of the Vietnam War
Anarcho-syndicalism
Definition needed
Apathy
Lack of interest in or concern for things that others find moving or exciting
Also see: Indifference
Appalachian Mountains
A mountain system of eastern North America extending from the Canadian Maritime provinces southwestward to central Alabama, including the ridge and valley area of northwestern New Jersey.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Appropriation
Something that has been set aside by formal actions for a specific use.
Aquifer
A geological formation of permeable rock, gravel, or sand containing or conducting groundwater, especially one that supplies water for wells, springs, etc.
Artisan
Skilled laborers or craftsmen
Atlantic Coastal Plain
A large area of low, flat land lying next to the Atlantic Ocean. It was formed when ocean water levels dropped enough to allow the continental shelf to remain uncovered.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Bauhaus
Architectural style characterized by simple unornamented design. This was the style used for the houses at Jersey Homesteads.
Bipartisan
Actions that represent cooperation and compromise between the major political parties
Also see: Bipartisanship
Bipartisanship
Actions that represent cooperation and compromise between the major political parties
Also see: Bipartisan
Blatant
Brazenly obvious; flagrant
Boycott
To combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or coercion; to abstain from buying or using
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Brown, Ben
Jersey Homesteads was founded based on Benjamin Brown's dream of a triple cooperative combining farming, garment work and retail marketing.
Capital
Wealth in money or property owned or employed in business by an individual or firm.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Censure
An expression of blame or disapproval.
Co-education
The education of students of both sexes at the same institution
Also see: Co-educational
Co-educational
The education of students of both sexes at the same institution
Also see: Co-education
Collegiate
Of or relating to college or university
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Communist
A member of a government that professes a classless society and by common ownership of production and subsistence.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Competence
Being capable.
Compliance
Conformity in fulfilling official requirements
Also see: Compliant
Compliant
Conformity in fulfilling official requirements
Also see: Compliance
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Conscientious
Acting on one's understanding of right and wrong.
Constituent
Individuals represented by an agent that is either elected or appointed
Also see: Constituents
Constituents
Individuals represented by an agent that is either elected or appointed
Also see: Constituent
Containment
The Cold War era foreign policy of the U.S. designed to prevent the spread of communism from Soviet Union and other communist nations into nations which are not communist.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Conviction
The act of finding guilty.
Convocation
A formal assembly at a college or university
Cook, George
Nineteenth Century New Jersey State Geologist and Rutgers University Professor of Chemistry whose research in soil qualities and successful agricultural practices contributed to the successful development of the state's cranberry and blueberry industries.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Cooperative
An enterprise owned and operated jointly by those who use its facilities and services.
Coville, Frederick
U.S.D.A. official who accepted Elizabeth White's invitation in 1911 to continue his cultivated blueberry research at Whitesbog.
De-escalate
Drawing down in volume or scope
Also see: De-escalation
De-escalation
Drawing down in volume or scope
Also see: De-escalate
Decadent
Moral degeneration or decay; unrestrained or excessive self indulgence
Defer
Making one's own actions and choices based upon the advice of others who have experience with or expertise in a particular field
Also see: Deference
Deference
Making one's own actions and choices based upon the advice of others who have experience with or expertise in a particular field
Also see: Defer
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Democracy
Government by the people.
Demographics
The statistical data of a population, especially those showing age, income, education, etc.
Desegregation
The elimination of laws, customs, or practices under which different races, groups, etc., are restricted to specific or separate public facilities, neighborhoods, schools, organizations, or the like
Difference
Lack of similarity or equality
Also see: Disparity
Disclosure
The act of sharing information with other parties or the public at large
Also see: Dislose
Discrimination
Treatment or consideration of , or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit
Disenchantment
The act of being freed from illusion or conviction
Also see: Disillusionment
Disillusionment
The act of being freed from illusion or conviction
Also see: Disenchantment
Dislose
The act of sharing information with other parties or the public at large
Also see: Disclosure
Dismantle
To disassemble or pull down; take apart
Disobedience
Resistance to or defiance of any authority, control, or tradition; the act of rebelling
Also see: Insubordination; Rebellion
Disparity
Lack of similarity or equality
Also see: Difference
Diversity
A point of difference
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Dubinsky, David
President the the I.L.G.W.U. He was initially opposed to Jersey Homesteads, because he felt that it would undermine efforts to unionize the garment industry. He later withdrew his opposition.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Einstein, Albert
Noted physicist and father of the theory of relativity. He was a Jewish refugee from Germany, who actively supported the Jersey Homestead project.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Ellis Island
Immigrant screening center established in New York Harbor in 1890.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Envisaged
To see the possibilities of something coming true.
Equality
The quality or state of being equal
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Expediency
Appropriateness to the purpose at hand; a means to an end.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
F.A.P. (Federal Art Project)
A New Deal agency which provided federal funds for art projects.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
F.S.A.
(Farm Securities Administration)Ben Shahn's work in photography was funded by this New Deal Program.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Fascist
Person supporting a government that is run by a dictator.
Feminism
The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes
Feminist Movement
The movement aimed at equal rights for women
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Fifth Amendment
Each person accused of a crime has the right to due process, protection from double jeopardy and the right not to incriminate oneself in testimony.
Financial assets
Any source of income or store of wealth that a person owns
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
First Amendment
Freedom of speech, assembly, press, religion.
Formal powers
The powers given to the President of the United States in Article II of the United States Constitution
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Fresco
The art of painting on fresh plaster with colors mixed in water.
Gadfly
A person who persistently annoys or provokes others with criticism, schemes, ideas, demands, reuests, etc.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Great Depression
This was a period of economic collapse between 1929 and 1941. It was the result of many factors, most notably the stock market crash of 1929.
Great Irish Potato Famine
A period between 1845 and 1850 in Ireland when, despite large quantities of food being grown for export, over one million Irish people starved to death during a potato blight, and another one and one-half million left Ireland to emigrate to the United States, Britain, or Australia.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Heterodoxy
Not in agreement with accepted beliefs.
Homophobia
Irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Hysteria
Behavior exhibiting overwhelming fear.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
I.L.G.W.U. (International Ladies Garments Workers Union)
A union for women working in the garment industry (formed in 1900). This union won the right to collective bargaining in 1909. ( See David Dubinsky)
Iconoclast
A person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstitution
Ideal
An honorable principle or worthy goal
Impeachment
To bring charges of official misconduct against an official
Imperial Presidency
This term was coined by historian Arthur Schlesinger in 1973 describing the increase in the size of the president's staff, the executive's evolving style of leadership, and the growth of executive agencies. Schlesinger suggested that this trend began with the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his New Deal programs.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Implication
To involve intimately or incriminate.
Inadequate
Deficient in quantity or quality; lacking fullness or richness
Also see: Scant; Meager
Incipient
Beginning to exist or appear
Indifference
Lack of interest in or concern for things that others find moving or exciting
Also see: Apathy
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Inherent
Belonging by nature or habit.
Inherent powers
Powers that the President of the United States exercises which are not the U.S. Constitution. Unless another branch of government challenges the exercise of the power, the President of the United States retains the power and successors to the president initially taking and using the power retain that power.
Insubordination
Resistance to or defiance of any authority, control, or tradition; the act of rebelling
Also see: Disobedience; Rebellion
Integration
The act of blending into an integral whole through equal opportunity and consideration
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Integrity
Living by a code of behavior.
Inter-collegiate
Existing, carried on, or participating in activities between colleges
Itinerary
A list of places a person will visit while on a trip or a vacation
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Judicious
Having or exhibiting sound judgment.
Legacy
The collective work (bills, programs, places, etc.) created by a legislator during his or her time in office
Levy
To impose or collect by authority or force
Maneuvers
A series of tactical exercises usually carried out in the field by large bodies of troops in simulating the conditions of war
Marl
A prominent soil found in many parts of South Jersey, comprised of glaucomite, clay, sand, and marine fossils.
Meager
Deficient in quantity or quality; lacking fullness or richness
Also see: Scant; Inadequate
Morrill Land Act of 1862
Introduced in Congress by Senator Justin S. Morrill of Vermont and signed into law by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, it provided states with 30,000 acres of land for each representative and senator in Congress as an endowment for the establishment of state agricultural schools designed to promote scientific research and training for farmers.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Mural
A painting applied directly to a wall or ceiling.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
New Deal
F.D.R.'s economic programs designed to combat the Great Depression in the 1930's.
New Jersey Cranberry Growers Association
An association of cranberry growers from New Jersey formed as a trade and information forum for the dissemination of successful cranberry-growing practices and marketing standardization in the industry.
New Jersey Pine Barrens
Extensive wilderness tract approximately 2,000 square miles lying within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, characterized by flat land and acidic or sterile soils, supporting few forms of traditional agriculture.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Odious
Hatred.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Orthodoxy
State of accepting traditional norms.
Passive
Existing or occurring without being active, open, or direct
Pemmican
Dried beef or venison meat pounded into a powder and mixed with fat and dried berries.
Peninsula
An area of land almost completely surrounded by water except for an isthmus connecting it with the mainland.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Perjury
The deliberate, willful giving of false, misleading or incomplete testimony on a relevant matter, by a witness under oath in a criminal proceeding.
Perpetuate
To prolong the existence of; cause to be remembered
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Pertinent
Having a clear decisive relevance to the model at hand.
Picketing
A person or group of persons stationed outside a place of employment, usually during a strike, to express grievance or protest and discourage entry by nonstriking employees or customers.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Pogrom
Anti-semitic riots, often backed by the Czarist government of Russia. It used the Jewish people as a convenient scapegoat group. Many of the residents of Jersey Homesteads were survivors, or second generation survivors of Pogroms.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Police State
A country or other political unit in which the government exercised rigid and repressive controls over the social, economic and political life; especially by means of a secret police force.
Prejudice
An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason; any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Prescribing
To set down as a rule.
Providence
The foreseeing care and guidance of God or Nature over the creatures of the earth.
Purge
To free from impurities; purify
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Purges
To rid a nation, political party or organization of anyone not desired.
Racism
A belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others;hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.
Rebellion
Resistance to or defiance of any authority, control, or tradition; the act of rebelling
Also see: Insubordination; Disobedience
Reconciliation
The process of making compatable
Recorder
In law this term means a judge who has criminal jurisdiction in a city
Refugee
One who flees in search of refuge, as in times of war, political oppression, or religious persecution.
Refugee Relief Act
A 1953 law that circumvented the existing quota system that limited immigration. It enabled over 200,000 immigrants fleeing communist governments to enter the United States.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Resettlement Administration
Established in 1935 as part of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, this agency administered a program which resettled displaced farmers. I the case of Jersey Homesteads, it also resettled displaced garment workers.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Revelation
An act of revealing; to view or make known.
Scant
Deficient in quantity or quality; lacking fullness or richness
Also see: Inadequate; Meager
Scope
Extent of treatment, activity, or influence
Second-class citizen
A person with less rights or freedoms than others
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Severance Pay
Act of giving money when fired or laid off from a job.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Shahn, Ben
Social Realist painter and photographer who was commissioned to produce a mural which chronicled the founding of Jersey Homsteads(later named Roosevelt), N.J.
Sokoling
Slavic gymnastics pioneered in Prague
Solidarity
A union of interests, purposes, or sympathies among members of a group; fellowship of responsibilities and interests
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Subversive
Intending to overthrow or undermine an established government.
Tangible
Capable of being perceived especially by the sense of touch
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Tenements
Low rent and often rundown and crowded housing inhabited by poor industrial workers in the early twentieth century.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Totalitarian
A government upheld by authoritarian means.
Totalitarianism
Complete rule of the government over all aspects of society including culture, economics, and religion
Transitional
Passage from one stage to another
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Fire in a N.Y.C. garment factory. Failure to enforce safety regulations contributed to 146 deaths. This tragedy led to reforms and regulations governing working conditions.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Tugwell, Rex
Member of F.D.R.'s "Brains Trust" (chief advisors). He was director of the Resettlement Administration.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Tyranny
A government in which a single ruler is vested with absolute power.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Unorthodox
Breaking with tradition.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
Utopia
Term coined by Sir Thomas More of England; he used it to describe a mythological community where life was perfect. In more recent times attempts at establishing utopias have taken the form of organized cooperative communities. The philosophy of the movement grew out of the belief that mankind is basically good and men will voluntarily give up their worldly wealth and live cooperatively with others.
Vanguard
The leaders of any intellectual or political movment; the forefront in any movement.
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Vengeance
To an extreme or excessive degree.
Vietnamization
The process of shifting responsibility for the Vietnam War from American to Vietnamese forces
Contributed by Red Scare at Rutgers
Vitality
A capacity to live and develop; the power of endurance.
Contributed by Jersey Homesteads
W.P.A.
(Works Progress Administration) The largest New Deal program, employing over 6 million Americans. The unique aspect of the W.P.A. is that it sought to create jobs for people which utilized their specific skills and talents.
White, Elizabeth
Daughter of J.J. White, Elizabeth continued her father's cranberry production while expanding into cultivated blueberry production. Her research efforts, over a forty-year period, directly established the New Jersey commercial cultivated blueberry industry.
White, J.J.
Late Nineteenth Century New Jersey cranberry grower whose land holdings were located in Burlington County and named Whitesbog. His pioneering efforts in developing and growing cranberries contributed greatly to the knowledge base for successful cranberry production.
Women's Liberation Movement
A movement to extend greater rights for women, typically used to describe the late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s in America
Also see: Women's Rights Movement
Women's Rights Movement
A movement to extend greater rights for women, typically used to describe the late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s in America
Also see: Women's Liberation Movement
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